Japanese Lesson 27 – How to use the words of time and date in Japanese sentence

I explain how to use the words of time and date in Japanese sentence. In many cases, time and date are describe as an adverbial phrase by adding any particle after the words. Basic adverbial phrase Basically, you have only to learn above three phrases. When “ni” is used, the phrase points a fixed time, day, month, year or day of the week. In English, different prepositions are used at that time. For example, “at” for time, “on” for date and day of the week, “in” for month and year. In Japanese, you use “ni” in all cases. “Kara” means the starting point of a time period, and “made” means […]

Japanese Lesson 26 – Expression of time and date in Japanese

Let’s learn the expression of time and date in Japanese. Basically, they are expressed as the combination of a numerical value and a unit name like the counting ways you have already learned. The following is the list of unit names of time and date. The expression of time Hour It is expressed by adding “ji” after a numerical value. In most cases, “4” is read as “yon” and “7” is read as “nana”. But when “ji” is used, “4” is read as “yo” and “7” is read as “shichi”. “24:00” is read as “nijuuyo-ji”. “Gozen” and “gogo” are always put before the the expression of time. 8 a.m. = […]

Japanese Lesson 25 – Japanese adjective doesn’t have the form of comparative and superlative

Japanese adjective doesn’t have the form of comparative and superlative like English. When you express them in Japanese, adverb or adverbial phrase modifying adjective is used. Comparative and “than” (Ex) Sapporo is colder than Tokyo. In English, adjective is changed to the form of comparative when two objects are compared. But Japanese adjective doesn’t have the form of comparative. So it is OK to use the original form of adjective. That’s very easy. The Japanese word for “than” is “yori” or “yorimo”. Because it is a particle, it is added after noun. The phrase including “yori” or “yorimo” is an adverbial phrase. You can put it into your favorite position […]

Japanese Lesson 24 – How to use adjective in Japanese

Let’s learn adjective which is an important part of speech in Japanese. You may feel that it is a little troublesome because it has the change at the end of the word like verb. Two types of adjective There are two types of adjective in Japanese. One type is the adjective that the last part is “i”. (I call it “i-adjective”.) Another type is the the adjective that the last part is “na”. (I call it “na-adjective”.) Each type of the adjective has different inflection. An adjective is either i-adjective or na-adjective, but there is no rule to fix the type. So you have only to learn each adjective with […]

Japanese Lesson 23 – Plural noun and how to use number words in sentence

I have introduced the way of counting things in Japanese on several pages. In this page, I explain how to use number words in sentence. Plural form of Japanese noun First, I describe plural form of Japanese noun. To put it simply, Japanese nouns have no plural form. That’s very fortunate thing. We must learn the plural forms in English or other main languages. But to learn Japanese, you don’t need to worry about such a thing. Whether a noun is singular or plural is recognized by adding an expression of number. However, there are plural words about noun of person. To express more than one person, the words are […]

Japanese Lesson 22 – Way of counting things (3)

This is the third page that I introduce the way of counting things in Japanese. In Japan, the metric system is used for the unit of length and weight. Of course, The notation is conformed to the international standard, but we read with Japanese pronunciation. Unit of length “Meter” is pronounced as “meetoru” in Japanese. 1,000 meters = 1 kilometer : “kiro-meetoru” in Japanese 0.01 meters = 1 centimeter : “senchi-meetoru” in Japanese 0.001 meters = 1 millimeter : “miri-meetoru” in Japanese The pronunciation in above yellow parts are changed for smooth speaking. Because Japanese language is based on vowel, long word tends to be shortened. So we often omit […]

Japanese Lesson 21 – Way of counting things (2)

I introduced some unit words for counting concrete objects in the preceding page. There are many other unit words not for concrete objects. Unit words for the number of repeat time and order The unit words for expressing the number of repeat time are “kai” or “do”. Both words are used frequently. The pronunciation of some numbers with “kai” are changed. “Ban” is a unit for expressing a position in an order or a ranking. In competition, race, various ranking, etc., the number with “ban” is used as a position in the ranking. Ordinal number In English, there are the ordinal word such as “first”, “second”, “third”, “fourth” in contrast […]

Japanese Lesson 20 – Way of counting things (1)

In many languages including English, the words of number are used for counting directly. But, Japanese need to add an appropriate unit word to the number. And there are a lot of unit words. You must know them, but please learn commonly used words first. Tsu – multipurpose word until 10 From 1 to 9, “tsu” is added at the end of the word. Only 10 doesn’t have it. But each word is different from the reading of number you have already learned. Because the reading is a way of counting since ancient times. But you can use them for various things. All inanimate objects are able to be counted […]

Japanese Lesson 19 – Reading of number (2) [Decimal, Fraction, Percentage]

Reading of decimal and fraction in Japanese is easy. Reading of percentage is not so difficult, too. Let’s learn them. Decimal In Japan, period is used as decimal point. The reading in Japanese is “ten” meaning “dot” in English. Each of numerical figures after a decimal point is read as a number. 0 is read as either zero or rei. When integer part is 0, it is usually read as “rei”. And, when the numerical figure of one’s place of the integer part is 2 (ni) or 5 (go), it is usually read long like “nii” or “goo”. 3.14 = san ten ichi yon 0.705 = rei ten nana rei […]

Japanese Lesson 18 – Reading of number (1) [Integer]

The notation of number is universal, and Arabic numerals are used in Japan too. And it is able to be written in kanji character. Let’s learn reading of number in Japanese. The first step is basic integer. Reading of number in Japanese is based on the decimal system since ancient times. English and some other European languages retain the traces of the duodecimal system and the vigesimal system. But Japanese is based on the decimal system completely. So you have only to memorize nine basic numbers and the names of digit. From 1 to 10, and zero These are most basic numbers. Please remember all of them. 2 (ni) and […]

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