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Structure of Japanese language

Japanese language is unique in the world, and it looks something like Korean language grammatically.
Japanese language has the following characteristics.

  1. It uses unique characters (kanji, hiragana, katakana).
  2. Verb is put at the end of the sentence.
  3. There are various auxiliary verbs. They are connected after a verb directly, and give various nuance of the sentence.
  4. The ending of verb, auxiliary verb and adjective conjugates according to the next word. And there are some patterns of flections.
  5. A particle is connected at the end of a nominal phrase, and it sets a function of the phrase such as subject, object, adverbial phrase.
  6. The order of such phrases is free. And we have only to set a verb with auxiliary verbs at the end of the sentence.
  7. Subject is often omitted.
  8. Noun doesn't have plural form.
  9. It has a complicated system of honorific expression. Even Japanese people sometimes use wrong.

Basic sentence

Watashi wa Nihon e ikimasu. (I go to Japan.)

"Watashi wa" is the subject of the sentence. "Wa" is the subjective particle.

"Watashi" is the word meaning "I" in English. But Japanese language has very many words meaning "I". "Watashi", "watakushi", "atashi", "boku", "ore", etc.
And "anata" is the word meaning "you" in English. There are also various words meaning "you" such as "anta", "omae", "kimi", "otaku", etc.

Of course, "watashi" and "anata" are the most formal words. So you have only to memorize these.

"Nihon e" is an adverb phrase. "Nihon" means "Japan" and "e" is a directional particle.

"Ikimasu" is composed with a verb "iku" means "go" in English and an auxiliary verb "masu" with politeness expression.
"Iku" is changed to "iki", because auxiliary verb is after the verb.
Probably, this is one of the hurdles to learn Japanese language.

Anata wa Nihon e ikitaidesu ka? (Do you want to go to Japan?)

When you make a question, you have only to put "ka?" at the end of the sentence.

"Ikitaidesu" is composed with a verb "iku" (go) and two auxiliary verbs "tai" (want) and "desu" (polite).

Watashi wa Nihon e ikimase n. (I don't go to Japan.)

One of making negative sentence is to put "n" at the end of the sentence.
So when you require a yes-no answer, you must check the end of the answer.

"Masu" is changed to "mase" beacuse "n" is after the word.

Conversation that many phrases are omitted

Above simple conversation becomes the following.

A : Nihon e ikimasu. Anata wa ikimasu ka?
B : Ikimase n.

When speakers have a talk, the phrases with known meaning are omitted actively.
In many cases, sentence don't have the subject.

Sentense with serial phrases

Watashi wa kinou Tokyo kara Kyoto e Shinkansen de tsuma to kimashita.
(I came to Kyoto from Tokyo by Shinkansen with my wife yesterday.)

Watashi wa : (Subject)
Kinou : yesterday / Tokyo kara : from Tokyo / Kyoto e : to Kyoto /
Shinkansen de : by Shinkansen / tsuma to : with my wife
kimashita : came (polite)

The order of the phrases is very free.
You only have to put phrases in the order of what you say.
But the verb with auxiliary verbs is always set up at the end of the sentence.

Watashi wa tsuma to Shinkansen de Kyoto e kinou Tokyo kara kimashita.
Kinou Tokyo kara watashi wa Kyoto e tsuma to Shinkansen de kimashita.

All modifying words are set before modifiee

Watashi wa yawarakaku oishii Kyoto-meibutsu no Yudofu wo tabemashita.
(I ate soft and tasty Yudofu of a specialty of Kyoto.)

Watashi wa : (Subject)
yawarakaku : soft / oishii : tasty / Kyoto-meibutsu no : of a specialty of Kyoto
Yudofu wo : (Object)
tabemashita : ate (polite)

All modifying words are set before modifiee.
Adjective is also conjugated according to the next word.
"Yawarakai" is changed to "yawarakaku" because the next word is an adjective.
"Oishii" is the same form as the root form "oishii", but it is the form before noun phrase.
"No" means "of" in English, but the phrase is set before the object noun.

Please learn Japanese language

Above explanation is quite basic things of Japanese language.
I'm not a teacher or a linguist. So above contents include my own analysis of Japanese language.
If you want to know Japanese language, please learn it formally.

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