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[Step.10] Expression of time and date

Time

Time is expressed as the combination of a numerical value and a unit name.
The unit names are "ji" (), "fun" (), and "byô" ().

For example, "8:15" is "8-ji 15-fun" in Japanese.
When you want to add the unit of second, for example, it becomes "8-ji 15-fun 10-byô".

The reading before "ji" is the following.
The orange parts have different reading from basic number reading.

1
ichi-ji
2
ni-ji
3
san-ji
4
yo-ji
5
go-ji
6
roku-ji
7
shichi-ji
8
hachi-ji
9
ku-ji
10
jû-ji
11
jûichi-ji
12
jûni-ji
13
jûsan-ji
14
jûyo-ji
15
jûgo-ji
16
jûroku-ji
17
jûshichi-ji
18
jûhachi-ji
19
jûku-ji
20
nijû-ji
21
nijûichi-ji
22
nijûni-ji
23
nijûsan-ji
24
nijûyo-ji

The reading before "fun" are the following.
The orange parts have different reading and "fun" changes to "pun" in some parts.

1
ippun
2
ni-fun
3
san-pun
4
yon-pun
5
go-fun
6
roppun
7
nana-fun
8
happun, hachi-fun
9
kyû-fun
10
juppun
20
nijuppun
30
sanjuppun
40
yonjuppun
50
gojuppun

From 11 to 59, normal numbers are used in the tens place.
For example, "15" is "jû-go-fun" and "46" is "yonjû-roppun".

The reading before "byô" are the following.
All parts are regular.

1
ichi-byô
2
ni-byô
3
san-byô
4
yon-byô
5
go-byô
6
roku-byô
7
nana-byô
8
hachi-byô
9
kyû-byô
10
jû-byô
20
nijû-byô
30
sanjû-byô
40
yonjû-byô
50
gojû-byô

From 11 to 59, normal numbers are used in the tens place.
For example, "23" is "nijû-san-byô" and "55" is "gojû-go-byô".

The length of time

Above words express a point of time.
The length of time is the same as them.
But "hour" is "jikan" (時間) instead of "ji" ().

For example, "2 hours and 25 minutes" is "2-jikan 25-fun" in Japanese.

Additional words to time

When time is expressed, the following words are often used.

  • xx-ji han : xx:30 (Expression of the half hour)
  • gozen (time) : (time) a.m.
  • gogo (time) : (time) p.m.
  • (time) goro : around (time)
  • (time) mae : before (time)
  • (time) sugi : after (time)
  • (time) chôdo / chôdo (time) : just (time)
  • (time) hatsu : depart at (time)
  • (time) chaku : arrive at (time)

And the following adverbs are important.

  • ima : now
  • genzai : now (a little formal)
  • kore kara : from now
  • sakki : just a moment ago
  • sakihodo : just a moment ago

Adverbial phrases for time

When the expression of time is used in sentence, the following adverbial phrases are used.

(at)
ni
(in, by, with)
de
(from)
kara
(until)
made

About "de", it is convenient to express the length of time.

I arrive at the hotel around 4:30 p.m.
Watashi wa hoteru ni gogo 4-ji han goro ni tsuki masu.

arrive (verb) = tsuku, "tsuki" before "masu"

It takes 2 hours and 20 minutes from Tokyo to Kyoto by Shinkansen.
Tôkyô kara Kyôto made Shinkansen wa 2-jikan 20-pun de hashiri masu.

run (verb) = hashiru, "hashiri" before "masu"

I get up before 6 o'clock.
Watshi wa 6-ji mae ni oki masu.

get up (verb) = okiru, "oki" before "masu"

Today, I go to Tokyo by the bus leaving at just 9:00.
Kyô, Watshi wa 9-ji chôdo hatsu no basu de Tôkyô e iki masu.

When time modifies a noun, they can be connect with a particle "no" in Japanese.

Date

Date is also expressed as the combination of a numerical value and a unit name.
The unit names are "nen" (), "gatsu" (), and "nichi" ().

For example, "May 18th, 2018" is "2018-nen 5-gatsu 18-nichi" in Japanese.
As you can see, the order is always year, month, day in Japanese.

The reading before "nen" is the same as the basic number.

For example, "2018-nen" is "nisen-jû-hachi-nen".

In Japan, both Christian Era and Japanese Era are used as the representation of year.
For foreigners, of course, Christian Era is used.

But Japanese Era is also used to the same degree among Japanese.
About Japanese Era, please the page of Outline.

By the way, 2018 is "Heisei 30-nen" (平成30). (The 30th year of Heisei)

About "month", the name from various classical origin is given to each name of month in many western languages.
But in Japanese, it is expressed by adding “gatsu” after a numerical value.

January
ichi-gatsu (1)
February
ni-gatsu (2)
March
san-gatsu (3)
April
shi-gatsu (4)
May
go-gatsu (5)
June
roku-gatsu (6)
July
shichi-gatsu (7)
August
hachi-gatsu (8)
September
ku-gatsu (9)
October
jû-gatsu (10)
November
jû-ichi-gatsu (11)
December
jû-ni-gatsu (12)

For reading of day, it is basically expressed by adding “nichi” after a numerical value.

But the days from 1 to 10 and 20 are read by using the name in ancient times.
At that time, “nichi” isn’t used but mainly “ka” is used.

1
tsuitachi
2
futsuka
3
mikka
4
yokka
5
itsuka
6
muika
7
nanuka
8
yôka
9
kokonoka
10
tôka
11
jû-ichi-nichi
12
jû-ni-nichi
13
jû-san-nichi
14
jû-yokka
15
jû-go-nichi
16
jû-roku-nichi
17
jû-shichi-nichi
18
jû-hachi-nichi
19
jû-ku-nichi
20
hatsuka
21
nijû-ichi-nichi
22
nijû-ni-nichi
23
nijû-san-nichi
24
nijû-yokka
25
nijû-go-nichi
26
nijû-roku-nichi
27
nijû-shichi-nichi
28
nijû-hachi-nichi
29
nijû-ku-nichi
30
sanjû-nichi
31
sanjû-ichi-nichi

Days of the week

The names of day of the week are the following.
Both “yôbi” (曜日) and “” () are OK.

As the abbreviated form using on calendar etc., the first kanji character part without “yôbi” is used and the reading of only the character is also only the part.

The meaning of the head part is similar to the name in English.
They are the elements of the world that the ancient people had believed.

Sunday
nichi-yôbi (日曜日)
Monday
getsu-yôbi (月曜日)
Tuesday
ka-yôbi (火曜日)
Wednesday
sui-yôbi (水曜日)
Thursday
moku-yôbi (木曜日)
Friday
kin-yôbi (金曜日)
Saturday
do-yôbi (土曜日)

By the way, "week" is "shû" () in Japanese.
The position of a week in a month is called as the following.

the 1st week
dai-isshû (第1週)
the 2nd week
dai-ni-shû (第2週)
the 3rd week
dai-san-shû (第3週)
the 4th week
dai-yon-shû (第4週)
the 5th week
dai-go-shû (第5週)

Season

In Japan, there are four seasons.
And there is a rainy season between spring and summer for a month in most areas except Hokkaido Island, it is called "tsuyu".

spring
haru ()
"tsuyu"
tsuyu (梅雨)
summer
natsu ()
autumn
aki ()
winter
fuyu ()

Additional words to date

When date is expressed, the following words are often used.

  • (date) no hajime : the beginning of (date)
  • (date) no owari : the end of (date)
  • (date) no nakagoro : the middle part of (date)
  • (date) no mae : before (date)
  • (date) no ato : after (date)
  • (date) no zenhan : the first half of (date)
  • (date) no kôhan : the last half of (date)
  • (month) no jôjun : between 1st and 10th of (month)
  • (month) no chûjun : between 11th and 20th of (month)
  • (month) no gejun : between 21st and 31th of (month)
  • heijitsu : weekday
  • shûmatsu : weekend
  • kûjitsu : holiday
  • shukujitsu : national holiday

And the following adverbs are important.

  • kyô : today
  • asu : tomorrow
  • ashita : tomorrow
  • asatte : the day after tomorrow
  • kinô : yesterday
  • ototoi : the day before yesterday
  • konshû : this week
  • raishû : next week
  • senshû : last week
  • kongetsu : this month
  • raigetsu : next month
  • sengetsu : last month
  • kotoshi : this year
  • rainen : next year
  • kyonen : last year

Adverbial phrases for date

When the expression of date is used in sentence, the following adverbial phrases are used.

(at)
ni
(from)
kara
(until)
made
(during)
no aida

Cherry blossoms bloomed in Tokyo on March 21st in this year.
Sakura wa kotoshi Tôkyô de 3-gatsu 21-nichi ni saki mashi ta.

bloom (verb) = saku, "saki" before "masu"

I will go to Japan in the last 10 days of October next year.
Watashi wa rainen 10-gatsu no gejun ni Nihon e iki masu.

Japan (noun) = Nihon or Nippon

She will teach the foreigners Japanese in Tokyo from next month to March in 2019.
Kanojo wa Tôkyô de raigetsu kara 2019-nen 3-gatsu made gaikokujin ni nihongo o oshie masu.

foreigner (noun) = gaikokujin
oshieru (verb) = oshieru, "oshie" before "masu"

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