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[Step.7] Verb and auxiliary verb

I have already explained that the verb group in the sentence patterns is put at the end of the sentence.
And, one or two auxiliary verbs are often joined after a verb with inflection, and they are perfectly united.

Verb and auxiliary verb of Japanese are confusing you.
I explain the basics.

Base form of Japanese verb

The last character of Japanese verbs is always “u”.
Let’s look at the examples.

iku (go), kuru (come), suru (do), taberu (eat), oshieru (teach), iru (stay), aruku (walk), hashiru (run), noru (ride), kau (buy), miru (see, look), kiku (hear, listen),...

The inflection of verbs

Japanese verb is changed according to the word connected after the verb.
A verb grammatically changes six forms.

But one of them is base form, so you must learn the other five forms in essence.

In this section, I introduce three forms of them.
(Below each name of the form is not formal name in grammar book but the name I created.)

  1. Verb + (“nai”, "rareru", "saseru" of auxiliary verbs) [Nai-form]
  2. Verb + (“masu” and the other auxiliary verbs) [Masu-form]

The cases cover all Japanese auxiliary verbs.
So, if you learn these, you can make most patterns of Japanese sentence.

inflection types of Japanese verb

All Japanese verbs are divided into some types of the inflection.
There are three main types and a few irregular verbs.

Type.1 : u-type

This type is relatively popular, and above “iku” belongs to this type.
The last “u” changes to different vowels in above cases.

  • iku (= go) [Base form]
  • ika [Nai-form]
  • iki [Masu-form]
  • hashiru (= run) [Base form]
  • hashira [Nai-form]
  • hashiri [Masu-form]

Type.2 : eru-type

The verb of this type has “eru” at the end of the base form.
The “eru” changes to “e”.

  • taberu (= eat) [Base form]
  • tabe [Nai-form]
  • tabe [Masu-form]
  • oshieru (= teach) [Base form]
  • oshie [Nai-form]
  • oshie [Masu-form]

Type.3 : iru-type

The verb of this type has “iru” at the end of the base form.
The “iru” changes to “i”.

  • iru (= stay) [Base form]
  • i [Nai-form]
  • i [Masu-form]
  • miru (= see, look, watch) [Base form]
  • mi [Nai-form]
  • mi [Masu-form]

Type.4 : Irregular type

Only two irregular verbs are “kuru” (come) and “suru” (do).

  • kuru (= come) [Base form]
  • ko [Nai-form]
  • ki [Masu-form]
  • suru (= do) [Base form]
  • shi [Nai-form]
  • shi [Masu-form]

Connection to "masu" (Auxiliary verb for politeness)

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... masu.

(Negative sentence)

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... masen.

"Masu-form" of verb is put before "masu" (Auxiliary verb for politeness).

Type.1 : hashiru (= run)

I run to hotel.
Watashi wa hoteru made hashiri masu.

Type.2 : taberu (= eat)

I eat sushi.
Watashi wa sushi o tabe masu.

Type.3 : miru (= watch)

I watch that movie.
Watashi wa ano eiga o mi masu.

Type.4 : kuru (= come)

She comes here.
Kanojo wa koko e ki masu.

Various auxiliary verbs

In Japanese, there are various auxiliary verbs.
The followings are the main auxiliary verbs.

After "Nai-form" of verb

  • nai : Negation
  • reru, rareru : Possibility
  • seru, saseru : Causative

After "Masu-form" of verb

  • masu : Politeness
  • tai : = I want to...
  • ta : Past tense

After "Base form" of verb

  • sôda : = I hear that...
  • rashii : = It seems that...
  • yôda : = It seems that...
  • bekida : = should

Let's use above auxiliary verbs with "masu".

One more negative sentence

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... masen.
Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... nai desu.

You know upper verb group for negative sentence.

The lower verb group includes auxiliary verb of negation "nai".
It is one more form for negative sentence.
It doesn't connect to "masu" but to auxiliary verb "desu" meaning assertion.

I don't eat sushi.
Watashi wa sushi o tabe masen.
Watashi wa sushi o tabe nai desu.

Possibility

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... re masu.

Auxiliary verb "reru" and "rareru" mean the possibility.
In English, it is the same as "can".
When it connects to "masu", it changes to "re".

I can eat sushi.
Watashi wa sushi o tabe re masu.

But, it is a little difficult to use "reru" and "rareru".
So the following expression using base form of verb and a noun is easy and natural.

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... koto ga deki masu.

(Negative sentence)

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... koto ga deki masen.

(verb) + koto = to do
dekiru = can do

I can eat sushi.
Watashi wa sushi o taberu koto ga deki masu.

I can't eat sushi.
Watashi wa sushi o taberu koto ga deki masen.

Causative

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... se masu.
or
Verb Group
... sase masu.

Auxiliary verb "seru" and "sareru" mean that the subject lets somebody do an action.
"Seru" is used after the verb of Type.1, and "saseru" is used after the other type of the verbs.
When "seru" connects to "masu", it changes to "se".
When "saseru" connects to "masu", it changes to "sase".

I let him go to Tokyo.
Watashi wa kare o Tôkyô e ika se masu.

I make her eat sushi in Tokyo.
Watashi wa kanojo ni sushi o Tôkyô de tabe sase masu.

Wish, Request

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... tai desu.

(Negative sentence)

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... taku ari masen.
Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... taku nai desu.

Auxiliary verb "tai" is the same as "want", "wish" or "hope" in English.
It often includes the meaning of request.

"Tai" connects to "desu".
In negative sentence, the above words are used and it changes to "taku".
"Masu-form" is used as the verb.

I want to go to Tokyo.
Watashi wa Tôkyô e iki tai desu.

I don't want to go to Tokyo.
Watashi wa Tôkyô e iki taku ari masen.
Watashi wa Tôkyô e iki taku nai desu.

Past tense

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... mashi ta.

(Negative sentence)

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... masen deshi ta.

Auxiliary verb "ta" makes past sentence.
Because the word is put at the end of verb group, "masu" and "desu" are changed.

I went to Tokyo.
Watashi wa Tôkyô e iki mashi ta.

I didn't go to Tokyo.
Watashi wa Tôkyô e iki masen deshi ta.

Rumor or hearsay

We often say a rumor or hearsay in the conversation.
In English, the sentence is "I hear that ..." or "I heard that ...".

In Japanese, the auxiliary verb "sôda" is used.
When it connects to the polite auxiliary verb, it becomes "sô desu".
The form of verb before them is base form.

When the main sentence is the pattern with complement and "desu", "desu" changes to "da". So the verb group becomes "da sô desu".

In addition, the content of the rumor is put in the subordinate clause in English, but it is put in the main sentence in Japanese.
Therefore, the subject is "I" speaking the sentence in English, but one is the subject of the rumor in Japanese.

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... sô desu.
I hear that he stays in Tokyo.
Kare wa Tôkyô ni iru sô desu.

Subject
wa
Complement
 
Verb Group
da sô desu.
I hear that Yumi is a nurse.
Yumi wa kangoshi da sô desu.

Conjecture

We also say a conjecture in the conversation.
In English, the sentence is "It seems that ...".

In Japanese, the auxiliary verb "rashii" or yôda" is used.
When they connect to the polite auxiliary verb, they become "rashii desu", "yô desu".
The form of verb before them is base form.

When the main sentence is the pattern with complement and "desu", "desu" is omitted and a particle "no" is inserted.

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... rashii desu.
Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... yô desu.
It seems that he stays in Tokyo.
Kare wa Tôkyô ni iru rashii desu.
Kare wa Tôkyô ni iru yô desu.

Subject
wa
Complement
 
Verb Group
rashii desu.
Subject
wa
Complement
 
Verb Group
no yô desu.
It seems that Yumi is a nurse.
Yumi wa kangoshi rashii desu.
Yumi wa kangoshi no yô desu.

Matter of course

We sometimes express a opinion for others.
If I think that the opinion is natural, the sentence of "You should ...", "He should ...", etc. is used in English.

In Japanese, the auxiliary verb "bekida" is used.
When it connects to the polite auxiliary verb, it becomes "beki desu".
The form of verb before them is base form.

Subject
wa
Direct Object
o
Indirect Object
ni
Verb Group
... beki desu.
You should go to Tokyo.
Anata wa Tôkyô e iku beki desu.

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